Exciting Interdisciplinary Physics: Quarks and Gluons, Atomic Nuclei, Relativity and Cosmology, Biological Systems
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Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy). New developments are presented in this volume and the status of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics.
Various chapters address the theory of elementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclear astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are discussed. A topic which transcends nuclear physics is discussed in two chapters: The proposed pseudo-complex extension of Einstein's General Relativity leads to the prediction that there are no black holes and that big bang cosmology has to be revised. Finally, the interdisciplinary nature of this volume is further accentuated by chapters on protein folding and on magnetoreception in birds and many other animals.
possibility to exist in Nature of superheavy elements (SHE)—elements heavier than 238 U depends on two determinatives: • it is necessary, that one of superheavy nuclides would have a lifetime long enough to cross “half” the Galaxy (of about 2 × 104 y) to be found in cosmic rays, or that, comparable with the age of the Earth (of about 4–5 × 109 y), to be found in meteorites or terrestrial samples; A. G. Popeko (B) Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org W.
field of long-lived giant quasi-atom formed in the collision of U+Cm. The sharp positrons line shown in the right figure would only appear if the giant nuclear system lives infinitely long. In reality one deals with time distributions as shown in the first figure. In this latter case the positron spectrum looks like in Fig. 10  Fig. 10 Positron spectra in central Pb+Pb and U+U collisions at E lab /A = 6.2 MeV assuming various nuclear delay times. The subcritical system displays destructive
name “backbending” triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) structures , consistent with the predictions of the early cranking calculations of Bengtsson and Ragnarsson  and Dudek and Nazarewicz . Thus, a new chapter in the story of 158 Er began. It is worth mentioning that a triaxial nuclear shape has distinct short, intermediate, and long principal axes, as shown in Fig. 5. This shape is commonly described using the parameters (ε2 , γ ) of the Lund convention , where ε2 and γ represent
contracts No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), DE-AC05-00OR22725 (ORNL), DE-FG02-94ER40834 (UMD), and DE-FG02-96ER40983 (UTK), the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council, the Swedish Science Research Council, and by the State of Florida. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. N. Bohr, F. Kalckar, Kgl. Dan. Vid. Selsk. Math. Phys. Medd. 14, 10 (1937) A. Bohr, B.R. Mottelson, Nuclear Structure,
structure including a doorway-state analysis , the local scaling dimension [19, 20], the entropy index method [21, 22] and a wavelet analysis [10, 23]. A comparison for representative cases indicates that wavelet analysis is a particularly promising tool , since it provides simultaneously a quantitative measure of the fine structure and information on the localization in the excitation spectrum. Characteristic scales can be extracted from the power spectra of wavelet transforms, which