Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health
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Antioxidant Food Supplements in Human Health discusses new discoveries in the areas of oxygen and nitric oxide metabolism and pathophysiology, redox regulation and cell signaling, and the identification of natural antioxidants and their mechanisms of action on free radicals and their role in health and disease.
An essential resource for researchers, students, and professionals in food science and nutrition, gerontology, physiology, pharmacology, and related areas.
* Health effects of antioxidant nutrients
* Nutrients of vitamins C and E, selenium, alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, carotenoids, and flavonoids
* Natural source antioxidants, including pine bark, ginko biloba, wine, herbs,uyaku, and carica papaya
Fr 9 Sp 9 Gr 20 0 1500 I I I I I 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 A n n u a l per capita cigarette c o n s u m p t i o n in adults Figure I The lack of a positive and strong cross-country relationship between standardized mortality rates for coronary heart disease calculated as an average from 1985 to 1987 and total adult cigarette consumption in adults over 15 years of age in Europe. Au, Austria; Be, Belgium; De, Denmark; Ge, Germany (former West); Fi, Finland; Fr, France; Gr, Greece;
prevent that process (33, 34). The potential role of antioxidants, including vitamin C, in the prevention of heart disease has been examined in several reviews (35-38). Large observational studies have suggested the possibility that vitamin C specifically may have a beneficial effect on heart disease risk. For example, a follow-up study of a large national cohort of over 10,000 persons followed for approximately 10 years obtained data on dietary vitamin C intake and vitamin supplement use (39).
a lesser extent increases in fiber and/or fruits and vegetables. The National Cancer Institute has supported a national program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption to five servings per day. While these are laudable goals, there is little cause for optimism that any of these goals will be achieved in any substantial way in the foreseeable future. Dietary habits change, but change is driven in large part by life-style and economics. America's life-style today is one of haste, of working
transition, is transferred to cytochromes b, which in turn reduce UQ'- to UQH-. Hence, at least in mitochondrial membranes, the ubisemiquinone formed during peroxyl radical (Reaction 1) or c~-tocopheroxyl radical (Reaction 2) reduction may be "recovered" via reaction with the cytochrome bs62 component of the mitochondrial "Q" cycle (Reaction 13). It may be hypothesized that the cycle encompassed by Reactions 1 or 2 and Reaction 13 (redox cycling in the classical sense) will provide an efficient
effect of NADPH-CoQ reductase on CoQ-10 in lipid membranes was also observed using rat liver microsomes (Takahashi et al., 1995). Microsomesd with a low reduction rate of CoQ-9 were prepared by repeated freezing and thawing and were incubated with rat liver cytosol and NAD(P)H. Results are shown in Table V. NADPH alone (without cytosol) appeared to stimulate lipid peroxidation in the microsomes and, subsequently, the oxidation of CoQH2-9. However, the simultaneous addition of cytosol and NADPH